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Prospective of Calcium Phosphate Cements for Bone Regeneration: Physicochemical, Mechanical and Biological Properties


Advances in Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine: Open Access
Sudip Dasgupta, Department of Ceramic Engineering, National Institute of Technology, India

Abstract

Calcium phosphate ceramics (CPCs) have been widely used as biomaterials for the regeneration of bone tissue because of their ability to induce osteoblastic differentiation in progenitor cells. This article provides an overview on the chemistry, kinetics of setting and handling properties (setting time, cohesion and injectability) of CPCs for bone substitution, with an emphasis on their mechanical and biological properties. The processing parameters that can be adjusted to control the setting process, injectibility and cohesive strength are presented. CPCs are used for the repair of non-load bearing bone defects due to the brittle nature and low flexural strength of such cements. Processing strategies to improve mechanical strength, fracture toughness and reliability of CPCs are discussed. A systematic discussion on the effects of the physical (e.g. surface roughness) and chemical properties (e.g. solubility, crystallinity) of CPCs on protein adsorption, cell adhesion and osteoblastic differentiation in vitro is presented. Furthermore, the physical and chemical properties of CPCs that govern its efficacy as carrier and candidate biomaterials for controlled release of variety of drugs and bioactive molecules are elaborated. Future research directions to improve the performance of CPCs are highlighted and briefly discussed.

Keywords

Calcium phosphate, Biocement, Injectability, Cohesion, Fracture toughness, Osteoinductivity, Drug delivery, Hardenability, Mouldability, Surface roughness, Solubility, Crystallinity, Stoichiometric, Low crystallinity, Deagglomerated, Polymerisation

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