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Perinatal complications of children born after assisted reproduction treatments, is there a difference with those born by spontaneous pregnancy? results in 2 centers


International Journal of Pregnancy & Child Birth
Hector Salvador Godoy Morales,1 German Gabriel Palacios Lopez,2 Griselda Claribel Reyes Torres,3 Pablo Joaquin Cervantes Mondragon,3 Daniel Vieyra Cortés,3 Hilda Sanchez Hernández,3 Miguel Loyo Guiot3

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Abstract

Background: The assisted reproduction treatments (ART) have been increasing and it has been controversial if patients born after these have or not major adverse perinatal events and repercussions on their health.
Objective: To compare if there are more perinatal complications in a group of live births after ART in a private hospital against a group of spontaneous live births in a public institution.
Methodology: Observational,  comparative,  retrospective  and  cross-sectional  study  of patients from 2008 to 2018 at the Hospital Angeles, Mexico City (cases) and the Military Hospital of Specialties of Women from 2016 to 2017 (controls). In the case group, we included  patients  treated  with ART,  without  age  limit,  either  by  their  own  embryos, donated embryos or by oocyte donation; we evaluated the presence or absence of obstetric complications  (preeclampsia,  gestational  diabetes,  threatened  preterm  delivery), and complications at birth (obstetric hemorrhage, early neonatal death, malformations). In  the  control  group,  we  evaluated  the  same  factors.  The  statistical  analysis  was  by descriptive statistics and by elaborating 2X2 tables of contingency, to obtain odds ratios and relative risks.
Results: 124 cases, for the control group 290 patients. Regarding pregnancies in the case group, 62% were obtained with their own oocytes. The day of transfer with most pregnancies was day 3 (47.5%). The average number of cycles to achieve pregnancy was 2.2, the frequency of multiple pregnancies by ART was 23.4%. When comparing groups, evaluating risks between them to present or not obstetric complications, we analyzed the most frequent ones; the group of cases was a factor that was associated with having no complications (OR 0.328 CI 0.188-.573), but with a higher risk of preterm labor threat (OR 3.06 IC 1.725-5.456). Regarding other complications, no significant differences were found.
Conclusions: With the present study, we add evidence that there are no major obstetric and perinatal risks and complications after births of children conceived by ART.

Keywords

assisted reproduction treatments, spontaneous newborns, obstetric, perinatal, complications

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