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Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the drinking water of muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

International Journal of Hydrology
Usman Ali,1,2 Aniqa Batool,1 Muhammad Asad Ghufran,3 Syeda Sabahat Kazmi,4 Syeda Hina Fatimah5


Safe and good quality potable water is a basic requirement for human existence, but if polluted can become the source of substances dangerous to human health. Azad Jammu and Kashmir is facing the problem of low quality of drinking water like other neighboring regions. Present study aimed to evaluate the heavy metal status in the drinking water of Muzaffarabad and outlying areas. Fifty three water samples were collected randomly from taps and spring waters of the study area and analyzed for six heavy metals (Copper, chromium, manganese, lead and zinc). Concentration of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn were below the guideline values of WHO and GOP. Chromium and lead exceeded standard values of WHO and GOP in 21% (n=11) in each case. Overall 66% water samples were found potable, while in 33% samples heavy metal contamination surpassed permissible limit. The assessment shows quite a reasonable situation regarding heavy metal quality status of potable water.


drinking water, heavy metal, muzaffarabad, AJ&K