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Bone mineral density and body composition in Saudi adult females

MOJ Anatomy & Physiology
Eslam A Header,1,2 Abdullah G Al-Kushi,3 Hala MA Wahba,4 Hassan M Bukhari,1 Naser A ElSawy5


Background: Low bone mass often leads to osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures. Body composition is a new aspect may contribute to imbalances that lead to decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and general bone health.
Objective: To determine the relationship between body composition and BMD for adult females in Western Region, KSA. Methods: A cross-sectional study has been conducted on a convenes samples of one hundred adult females. Data were collected through an interview using especial questionnaires. Body composition was measured with the Bodystat®1500 and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was used to determine the visceral fat; Bone mineral density was measured by using the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA).
Results: Based on WHO diagnostic criteria, osteoporosis was present in 2%of samples while osteopenia represented 34% of the cases. Meanwhile there was a highly positive significant association (p<0.01) between bone mineral density and each of weight, waist, hip, MAC, fat%, fat weight, lean weight, dry lean, body water, BMI, visceral fat. As for spinal BMD, There was a positive significant correlation (p<0.01) between it and each of weight, MAC, fat weight, lean weight, dry lean, body mass index, Bone mineral density.
Conclusion: A significant portion of adult females is at high risk of development of osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fractures. So young women are in particular need to be aware of their vulnerability to osteoporosis. They can take steps early to slow its progress and prevent complications.


bone, body composition and females, arm circumference, impedance analysis, mineralized bone, immobilization, osteoporosis, pathologic vertebral, pathologic fractures, hip fracture, physical examination, clinical balance, x-ray absorptiometry, statistical package, anthropometric measurements, osteopenia, visceral fat