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Bioremediation of lead polluted soil from Obio/Akpor local Government Area, rivers state using African Catfish and tilapia fish bones


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Abstract

A study was undertaken to compare the bones of two fin fish-African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), in the bioremediation of lead polluted soils. Six soil samples containing different sources of lead were collected from Obio-Akpor LGA, Rivers State. African catfish and Tilapia fishes were sourced from the market; the bones were extracted and dried (using a hot oven). The bones were then crushed with a blender, and weighed using analytical measuring scale. The crushed bones were mixed with lead polluted soil samples and left in the laboratory, in cool transparent plates for 3 weeks and 3 days for group one samples, while group two samples were left in the laboratory for 1 week and 3 days. The results revealed that for group one samples; Acid battery soil mixed with Catfish bones reduced the lead concentration from 3122.30mg/kg to 2574.50mg/kg. Lead battery soil mixed with Tilapia bones reduced the lead concentration from 6718.15mg/kg to 1184.15mg/kg, while Lead metal soil mixed with both Catfish+Tilapia bones increased the lead concentration from 8807.65mg/kg to 11874.50mg/kg. For group two samples; Acid battery soil mixed with both Catfish+Tilapia bones reduced the lead concentration from 3706.75mg/kg to 3144.45mg/kg. Lead metal soil mixed with Catfish bone reduced the lead concentration from 15940.50mg/kg to 3903.90mg/kg, while Lead battery soil mixed with Tilapia bones increased the lead concentration from 6439.20mg/kg to 11671.50mg/kg. The study revealed that Catfish bones, at different weights can be used in the bioremediation of lead polluted soils and the reduction was higher, than using Tilapia or the combination of the fish bones.

Keywords

Catfish, Tilapia, Bones, Lead, Bioremediation, Concentration, Lead battery soil, Lead metal soil, Acid battery soil, Ingestion, Micro-organism, Environment, Contamination, Food chain, Toxic metals

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