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Revisiting the nature of dark sunspots: magneto-optical nature of darkness and heating of sunspots

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A critical analysis of the state of modern sunspot physics and the closely related physics of the sun as a whole is given. It is shown that the appearance and existence of dark and cold sunspots in the photosphere of the Sun is impossible, since this contradicts the second law of thermodynamics. The physical mechanism is described by which the magnetic field of a sunspot affects the processes of emission of light photons by the photospheric gas in the continuous spectrum of visible radiation, as a result of which it becomes dark and hot. Experimental evidence for the model of hot dark sunspots is presented. Estimates are given of the thermal power of sunspots as sources of solar wind energy and heating of the corona. A possible mechanism for the acceleration of solar wind particles in the solar atmosphere is proposed, which is based on the principle of the Laval nozzle.


sunspot physics, second law of thermodynamics, magnetic field, photospheric gas, solar wind energy, thermal power of sunspots