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Phytochemical-constituents, safety and efficacy of commonly used medicinal plants for the treatment of malaria in Ethiopia-a review


Pharmacy & Pharmacology International Journal
Tigist Abera, Rekik Ashebir, Hirut Basha, Eyob Debebe, Abiy Abebe, Asfaw Meresa, Samuel Woldekidan

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Abstract

Background: Malaria is among the ten top leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under-5 years. Due to the rise of drug-resistant parasites and limited therapeutic efficacy of the available drugs, there is a need to search novel antimalarial drugs from medicinal plants commonly utilized as traditional medicines. Traditional medicines are often more available, affordable, sometimes are perceived as more effective than conventional antimalarial drugs, cultural acceptable and the relatively lower cost. Hence traditional medicine becomes the novel candidate for the search and development of drugs for the prevention and treatment of malaria. Objective: The present study aimed to review phytochemical constitute, safety and efficacy commonly used medicinal plants for malaria treatment in Ethiopia.
Methods: A web-based literature search was done by using scientific databases including Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science and Google Scholar, with inclusion criteria of full length experimental, ethno-botanical and ethno medicinal survey articles reporting on anti-malarial medicinal plants conducted in Ethiopia.
Results: The most commonly utilized medicinal plants for the treatment of malaria were Allium sativum, Aloe pulcherrima, Aloe debrana Chrstian, Aloe Sinana, Asparagus africanus, Balanites rotundifolia, Bersama abyssnica, Calpurnia aurea, Clerodendrum myricoides, Croton macrostachyus, Dodonaea angustifolia, Echinops kebericho, Gnidia Stenophylla, Jatropha curcas, Strychnos mitis, Otostegia integrefolia, and Withania somnifera.
Conclusion and recommendation: Aqueous leaf extract of Strychnos mitis possessed a potent chemo suppression of 95.5 % at a dose of 600mg/kg/day. Further chemical isolation, dosage form development, clinical trial, and toxicological study is recommended. 

Keywords

medicinal plants, malaria, phytochemistry, safety, efficacy

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