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Effects of millet based functional foods rich diet on coronary risk factors among subjects with diabetes mellitus: a single arm real world observation from hospital registry


MOJ Public Health
Ram B Singh,1 Jan Fedacko,2 Viliam Mojto,3 Adrian Isaza,4 Mira Dewi,5 Shaw Watanabe,6 Anil Chauhan,7 Ghizal Fatima,8 Kumar Kartikey,1 Ahmad Sulaeman5

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Abstract

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has become a global public health problem, characterized by increased intake of western style diets and decline in physical activities which are pro-inflammatory. Food diversity, nutrient profile, glycemic index and lower content of salt sugar and Tran’s fat are an important consideration for a healthy anti-inflammatory diet which may be advised for prevention of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). This clinical observation aims to examine the effects of a millets based functional food rich intervention diet on coronary risk factors among subjects with known diabetes. 
Method: After permission from the review board of a hospital, hospital records of 65 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were drawn for this study. Of 65 patients with diabetes, 5 were excluded and remaining 60 were administered millet-based functional food rich intervention diet (millets 60%, soya bean 20%, brown rice 10%, peanuts 8% and flex seeds 2%). Clinical data, dietary intakes and physical activity were assessed by validated questionnaires. Blood pressures were measured by sphygmomanometer. 
Result: Treatment with millet based intervention diet for 12 weeks was associated with a significant decline in fasting and 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, Hb 1c indicating that this diet can prevent diabetes. Total cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides showed a significant decline compared to baseline levels. Pro-inflammatory cytokines; C-reactive proteins, TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 also showed significant reduction after treatment with intervention diet compared to baseline levels. In association with these changes, there was a significant decline in systolic and diastolic blood pressures, parameters of oxidative stress; TBARS, MDA and diene conjugates with an increase in antioxidant vitamins; A,E and C and beta-carotene. Underlying these changes, all subjects received an 11 fold greater amount of millet-based intervention diet which increased from mean 21.36±3.8g/day to 235.20±23.6 (p<0001).Among females (n=33), there was a significant increase in hemoglobin and serum calcium and magnesium indicating that millet based diet can also prevent under nutrition.
Conclusion: It is possible that millet-based intervention diet can cause a significant decline in blood glucose, Hb1c, oxidative stress, blood pressures, blood lipoproteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines with an increase in antioxidant vitamins, magnesium, calcium and hemoglobin. Randomized, controlled intervention trials, would be necessary to confirm our findings.

Keywords

hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, cytokines, nutrition, inflammation, whole grains, morbidity, mortality, cardiovascular, inflammation, diabetes, magnesium, calcium, sphygmomanometer, serum

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