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Deterioration of blue Nile forests and its ecological effects in the Gezira State– Sudan


MOJ Ecology & Environmental Sciences
Mohammed Ahmed HA Al Zubair, Sabah alkhair, MM Hamdan

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Abstract

The research aims to outline the major characteristics of forest cover in Greater Wad Madani and South Gezira Localities including the areas around the Blue Nile in the period 1973-2019 and analyze the apparent spatial and temporal attributes pertaining to species density, frequency and abundance and the causes of its deterioration and the impact of this deterioration on the ecosystem of the study area. To achieve these aims, digital data from satellite images taken by the U.S Land sat 5 and Land sat 7 for the years 1973, 2001 and 2016 were processed and analyzed using Erdas Imagine, Arc Map and GiS, whereby a quantitative and qualitative inventory of the forest cover is carried out using the square method to determine the percentage of coverage, density and abundance of tree species. The inventory showed clearly that diversity of tree species underwent clear decimation. Some species that were prevalent in the past became at the present few and rare such as Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal vor seyaland Acacia nubica. Some of the species almost disappeared such as A.seyal vor fistula. Noteworthy, theProsopis juliflora and Capparis decidua are beginning to be dominant unless measures are taken to combat their spread. An important indicator of the deterioration of forest cover is the decrease in the area of forests. While the forested area in the Locality comprised 14.7% of the total area of the study area in 1973 it decreased to 3.1% in 2016. The main reasons behind this deterioration were the need of the population for wood for fuel purposes, construction, traditional industries and grazing. The research raised several recommendations which include the preparation of a comprehensive environmental database on land use which must include the forest cover in addition to establishment of an administrative monitoring and follow up organ equipped with modern technology to ensure the sustainable conservation of forests.

Keywords

Deterioration, Forest, Ecology, Acacia, Coverage, Density, Frequency, Abundance, Accelerated destruction, Rainfall, Soil, Locality, Survey, Vegetation, Villages

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