Production boreholes water quality evaluation using GIS based geostatistical algorithms in Windhoek
- International Journal of Hydrology
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The acquaintance on the manifestation of production boreholes, its replenishment and chemical distinctive have distinct significance in semi-arid zone like Windhoek where production boreholes are partially source of water used for domestics. The goal of this research is to provide an overview for evaluation of production boreholes water quality in Windhoek by using GIS (Geographic Information System) and geostatistical algorithms. The production boreholes water quality parameters; pH, chloride, Iron, electrical conductivity and temperature were sampled and analyzed from production boreholes in Windhoek. Furthermore, maps of each parameter were produced by means of geostatistical (kriging) tactic. Moreover, semivariogram values were tested for different ordinary kriging models to ascertain the superlative fitted for the five water quality parameters and the superlative models were selected based on the average standard error, root mean square standardized error, root mean square error and mean square error. Five maps of the production boreholes water quality parameters were used to compute the production boreholes water quality map using the index technique. Therefore, pro-active measures must be taken into consideration to check the levels of pH, chloride, Iron and electrical conductivity and temperature to avert severe contamination and also to protect the production boreholes in Windhoek.
production boreholes, water quality, geo-statistics, GIS