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Breast cancer in transgender population: incidence, risk factors, screening and peculiarities-an integrative review of the literature

Journal of Cancer Prevention & Current Research
Amanda da Silva Anjos,1 Ana Clara Kunz,1 Evelyn Caroline Suquebski Dib,1 João Moisés Oliveira Lapola,1 Audrey Tieko Tsunoda2


Aim: To address the incidence, risk factors, screening, and particularities of breast cancer in transgender patients.
Methods: An integrative literature review was conducted with the descriptors (breast cancer) AND (transgender), in English, at PubMed, MEDLINE, and BVS databases.
Discussion: There are a few reported cases of breast cancer in this population. Hormone therapy has been pointed out as a possible risk factor for breast cancer, but the literature is controversial. Screening is a challenge, with many barriers. Different medical societies establish distinct guidelines, mainly based on mammography, according to the protocol for cisgender women.
Conclusion: Transgender patients remain marginalized regarding health services access. This population presents particularities inherent to the gender affirmation that should be considered in the risk assessment, screening, and therapeutic decision making, which should be individualized.


breast neoplasms, transgender persons, estrogens, testosterone, cancer screening