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A mini review on the ballistic protection performance of 2D and 3D woven fabric structures woven from technical yarns for body armormaterials in military application


This mini-compilation study included a review study conducted on the ballistic protection performances of 2D and 3D structured woven fabric structures for body armor materials in military applications. As conclusion, orthogonal type 3D woven fabric structures have higher ballistic protection performance compared to conventional 2D woven fabric structures by locking the high-performance yarns used and preventing slippage between layers. It is recommended to use ceramic-structured front plates such as B4C to break armor-piercing bullets, reduce penetration, and absorb a significant portion of their high kinetic energy. Also, UHMWPE, PPD-T, and PBO, which have fine yarn counts (between 466 dtex and 933 dtex) can be produced by 1x1 plain woven fabric construction woven fabric structures (lamina), high warp and weft density values (between 30 and 40 warp/cm and weft/cm), and orthogonal 3D woven fabric structure, which has high warp, and weft yarn tension (between 20 cN and 50 cN per warp yarn), 160 rpm as production speed, and multi-layered (between 13 layers and 16 layers in lamina form) in honeycomb (sandwich) geometry. Moreover, the impregnation process can be applied with CaCO3, SiO2, PVB, or CNT particles (in the particle size range of 100 nm to 400 nm) with chemicals such as PEG (in the range of 60% to 75% concentrations), in the range of 80 °C to 160 °C temperatures and between 1 hour and 3 hours. Coating (STF applications) is extremely important and successful for ballistic protection performance at IIIA, III and IV levels for NIJ standards. Future studies in this field should include orthogonal 3D structured woven fabric applications from UHMWPE, PPD-T, or PBO yarns by applying STF technology should be examined comparatively from an experimental perspective.


2D and 3D woven fabric structures, armor materials, military applications, ballistic protection performances