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Biogenesis and function of microRNAS from plants, animals and fungi applicable in health and food biotechnology

International Journal of Molecular Biology: Open Access
Sehom Rivera Gutiérrez, Noé Valentín Durán


MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs found in plants, animals and fungi. They
are involved in developmental, metabolic, growth and reproduction processes. They
modulate these processes by regulating target mRNAs by binding to them through base
complementarity, and with the help of an enzymatic complex, they cleave the mRNA,
or interrupt its translation into protein. Its biogenesis in plants occurs within the nucleus,
to later be exported to the cytoplasm where it will take its regulatory action. In animals,
biogenesis begins in the nucleus, but unlike plants, it is completed in the cytoplasm. A
biosynthetic mechanism has not been established in fungi, although it could be similar to
that in plants due to the nature of the fungal transcripts. MicroRNAs can be used as key
biomolecules in the solution of health problems, in the improvement of plants of agronomic
interest and in the optimization of bioprocesses to obtain industrial products of food interest.
Furthermore, they have been proposed as strategic biomolecules in the design of nutritional
tables that offer a better quality of life to people. Agronomically, its study focuses mainly
on improving the characteristics of crops of commercial interest, as well as combating pests
that affect the production of fruits, vegetables and grains. For this reason, microRNAs are
being proposed as cutting-edge molecules for solving health food problems worldwide.


biogenesis of microRNAs, animal miRNAs, plant miRNAs, fungal miRNAs, biotechnological applications