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The use of immunomodulators in multiple sclerosis: diagnosis, treatment and neurological examination

Journal of Neurology & Stroke
Délio T Martins Malaquias,1 Alexandre D Vivas,Juliana F Beltran Paschoal,1 ⁠Elisa F Prezotto,1 João Victor Carvalho,1 Filipe Jabur Lot Garcia,1 Ana Clara Felipe Parreira,1 Vitor Hugo de Souza,Thalita P Morel Alineri,1 ⁠ Kevin do Nascimento Silva,1 Milena de Barros Maia,1 ⁠Rafaela Del Grosso Reis,1 Pedro L Vieira Valença,1 Adriana F Viana,1 Thayná Bezerra de Souza,1 Roselene de Oliveira Carvalho,1 ⁠Diana B Fonseca Coelho,1 ⁠Breno Biral Gallo,1 ⁠Giovana Rocha Victorello,1 Júlio Elias Calheiros,1 Laura A Nascimento Ribeiro,1 ⁠Rafaela Ribeiro Benedito,1 Alana S de Lima Bozzi,1 ⁠Luan Nascimento Lázaro,1⁠ ⁠Vithória T Zervoudakis de Castro,1 Ana Carolina R do Vale Rodrigues,Ana Carolina Passeli Bergamin,1 ⁠Maria Paula Maciel Nogueira,1 Bruna Daniel Araujo,1 Isabella Cordova Montagnani,Giovanna Seroque de Castro,Isabela Zanella Ramponi,Christopher A Pereira Lima,André Machado Garcia,Giovana Clausson Bitolo,Cristiano Bento Alvarenga,3Aldaiana Scarsi,Hamilton Roberto M de O Carriço,4Amanda Luiza Batista Cordeiro,Hiromi MK Fujishima,João Victor Almeida Dias,6 Orseli Marques Ferreira Neto,João Victor Portellinha de Oliveira,7 Carla Cristine Orasmo,Suely Fernandes dos Santos,9 Rafael Pinheiro do Nascimento,10 Karen Miyamoto Moriya,10 Andreza Spinola Zaparoli,10 Maurício De Francisco Strefezzi,1 Liliana Martins Occulate,12 Fernando Álison Morais Diniz Felix,13 Thiago A Rochetti Bezerra1–14


Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune, demyelinating, chronic disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in young adults. It is a complex and heterogeneous condition due to the involvement of various pathophysiological processes including inflammation, demyelination, axonal injury and repair mechanisms. These processes characterize MS as a progressive and unpredictable disease. The diagnostic definition of MS is no easy task, as there is no specific marker. Objectives: To carry out a descriptive review study on the use of immunomodulators in multiple sclerosis, from diagnosis to treatment. Material and methods: A descriptive review study was carried out on the use of immunomodulators in multiple sclerosis, from diagnosis to treatment. The studies were analyzed from February to March 2024, with a sample of 34 scientific articles analyzed. Results and discussion: The initial assessment of a patient with MS usually begins with the patient’s medical history and a detailed account of the symptoms, including their onset, duration and pattern. Neurologists pay particular attention to the type of symptoms, their progression and any relapses or remissions. Conclusion: In conclusion, navigating the complexities of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) requires a comprehensive and personalized approach to diagnosis and treatment. From the intricate process of diagnosing the disease, through a combination of clinical assessments, MRI scans and other diagnostic tools, to the wide range of treatment options, including disease-modifying therapies, symptomatic treatments and lifestyle modifications, managing MS is a multifaceted endeavor


multiple sclerosis, central nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid tests