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Causes of low back pain (LBP) in women without pregnancy, in relation to different age groups during the reproductive period, are primarily treated as musculoskeletal disorders: a retrospective study

MOJ Orthopedics & Rheumatology
Umme Sayeeda Bilkish,1 Md. Jahangir Hossain,2 Murshida Afruz,3 Chowdhury Foyzur Rob,4 Md. Gulam Mustofa,5 Chowdhury ABM Bodrudduza6


Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) is a musculoskeletal disorder of several causes that can mess up the spine. It is characterized by pain, stiffness or muscle tension and is usually localized in the lumber region. – During their working years, people frequently experience low back pain. Approximately 84% of adults experience LBP once or more during their lifetime. In Bangladesh, wt. related prevalence of LBP is 18.5% and age group 18-34 years prevalence are 10.5% and >55 years 27.8%, average 19.2%, which is more in women 27.2% than men. Pain in the soft tissue of the back is extremely common among adults and often affects individuals during their working years. LBP in women, is strongly linked to hormonal and reproductive factors, the work environment and lifestyle. Females frequently experience lower abdominal and back pain at reproductive age, usually due to PMS, PMDD, dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, pregnancy, menopause, muscle spasms, arthritis, UTI, PID, HTN, DM, obesity, multiple C/S tracts and lower abdominal operations, all of which cause RAD, osteoporosis, vertebral and intervertebral disc diseases (PLID, herniation, slipping etc.). The L4 and L5 neural arches are involved in the transmission of a considerable load. Therefore, the joints between the articular facets of L4 and L5 ,- are sites of LBP. Low back pain (LBP) was diagnosed by history and clinical examination according to the Pain Scale. To determine the cause of HELLP syndrome/causes by routine investigations and sometimes abdominal ultrasonography (USG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is needed. Treatment of LBP depends on the cause. When a definite lesion is not found, the patient should be informed and reassured about the treatment of LBP. Purpose/Objective of the study: To identify the causes of LBP and prevalence of LBP in women of reproductive age excluding pregnant individuals and establish referral guidelines. MOJ Orthopedics & Rheumatology Research Article Open Access Methodology: This was a retrospective (observational) cross sectional study jointly conducted by Orthopedics and Gynecology Expertise in the NorthEast region, named the Sylhet Division of Bangladesh. Female patients were considered to be of reproductive age for the last three (3) years (2020 - 2022) at the Z&J fellows medical institution. The data were collected from the medical records of computer databases with preset questionnaires and written informed consent. The 1st part of the questionnaire consisted of questions about the causes of LBP, and the 2nd part consisted of LBP-related questionnaires. Patients were selected by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data were analyzed with SPSS 25.0 statistical software, MS Word and Excel version 2010. Descriptive statistics were analyzed, i.e. - frequency, central tendency and dispersion, i.e. range, standard deviation and variance. Tests of “proportions” and “significance” were performed via sample t-tests and ANOVA. Statistical data analysis was used to evaluate the correlation of LBP incidence and intensity (%) with age, BMI, disease status, marital status, obstetric history, working history and posture of reproductive-age women. Summary: LBP has multiple causes. In retrospective studies, there is no way to predict the prevalence of causes rather, the prevalence of causes can be determined before patients are affected. In our study, we explored the causes of LBP in women according to age, BMI, local and systemic diseases, marital history, obstetric history, working history and posture. The prevalence of LBP was greater in the 41-50 years age group (34.7%) and in the 20-30 years age group (34.2%). Moreover, overweight and obesity are associated with LBP. Overall 5.3% and 12.8% of the participants were overweight and obese, respectively, and were aged >20-30 years with LBP. Patient age, BMI, disease status, marital status, obstetric history and working history had no effect on any of the patients, but some patients had LBP; overweight, obesity, age group and working posture had direct effects on LBP incidence (p>0.05). LBP is more common in women- than in men and may be due to household activities and a greater frequency of visceral pain during menstruation, pregnancy and labor. Conclusion: Low back pain (LBP) can occur in multiple physical conditions in women of reproductive age except during pregnancy and can disrupt the back tissues of the lumbosacral region. Women are more susceptible to LBP because of menstrual and obstetric factors. A diagnosis was made by obtaining a meticulous detailed medical history, performing a physical examination and performing proper investigations. The causal parameters revealed that LBP had no effect on any of the patients, but women of reproductive age may suffer from LBP due to differences in cause. 


low back pain (lbp), women of reproductive age, lbp in women without pregnancy, retrospective, cross-sectional study, overweight, obesity