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Rapid and accurate detection of foodborne pathogens: impedimetric immunosensor at the forefront


MOJ Food Processing & Technology
Srutee Das,<sup>1</sup> Debarchan Mondal,<sup>1</sup> Niloy Chatterjee,<sup>1,2</sup> Pubali Dhar<sup>1,2</sup>

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Abstract

Microorganisms can be categorized into five categories: bacteria, algae, fungi, viruses, and protozoa which can cause microbiological hazards, contaminating food during production, manufacture, transportation, and storage. Biosensor technology is one of the most reliable and effective analytical technique for determining a biological system’s sensitivity and specificity at a very low scale. So many techniques exist for identifying and detecting food-borne illness causing bacteria. But biosensor technology is used to detect and monitor with accuracy, thus increasing its interest globally with time. Biosensors have been used for a long time to illustrate the process of regulating data in the pharmaceutical, food manufacturing, and processing industries. An immunosensor is a type of biosensor that uses the molecular recognition specificity of antigens to form a stable complex of an antibody. It is divided into two subcategories- labeled and label -free. A labeled immunosensor is primarily used to sense the immune reaction and generate signals that allow versatile detection of complex, and detect the microorganisms like Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli. Label-free immunosensors detect physical changes during the immune complex formation and have been explored because of their potential as a specific detection technique which can reduce the time and cost of analysis. It has been developed using several detection methods like optical changes for Salmonella sp., electrochemical changes for Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, and Hepatitis B. An impedimetric immunosensor for pathogens has been created utilizing a biosensor, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, antibodies, affinity proteins, affimers, and other binding proteins like bio-receptors, which exhibit good selectivity. This review discusses the techniques used by immunosensors to recognize microorganisms that might cause food poisoning. These techniques consider the electrodes and base-layer components, the makeup and characteristics of distinct bacterial species, as well as the interactions between antigens and antibodies that are utilized to detect bacteria.

Keywords

biosensors, impedimetric immunosensor, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, bacteria, antibody

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